Tag Archives: SPMプローブ

Nanoscale Charge Accumulation and Its Effect on Carrier Dynamics in Tri-cation Perovskite Structures

Nanoscale investigations by scanning probe microscopy have provided major contributions to the rapid development of organic–inorganic halide perovskites (OIHP) as optoelectronic devices. Further improvement of device level properties requires a deeper understanding of the performance-limiting mechanisms such as ion migration, phase segregation, and their effects on charge extraction both at the nano- and macroscale.*

In the article “Nanoscale Charge Accumulation and Its Effect on Carrier Dynamics in Tri-cation Perovskite Structures” David Toth, Bekele Hailegnaw, Filipe Richheimer, Fernando A. Castro, Ferry Kienberger, Markus C. Scharber, Sebastian Wood and Georg Gramse describe how they studied the dynamic electrical response of Cs0.05(FA0.83MA0.17)0.95PbI3–xBrx perovskite structures by employing conventional and microsecond time-resolved open-loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM).*

Their results indicate strong negative charge carrier trapping upon illumination and very slow (>1 s) relaxation of charges at the grain boundaries. The fast electronic recombination and transport dynamics on the microsecond scale probed by time-resolved open-loop KPFM show diffusion of charge carriers toward grain boundaries and indicate locally higher recombination rates because of intrinsic compositional heterogeneity. The nanoscale electrostatic effects revealed are summarized in a collective model for mixed-halide CsFAMA. Results on multilayer solar cell structures draw direct relations between nanoscale ionic transport, charge accumulation, recombination properties, and the final device performance.*

The author’s findings extend the current understanding of complex charge carrier dynamics in stable multication OIHP structures.*

NANOSENSORS™ Platinum Silicide AFM Probes of the PtSi-CONT type (nominal resonance frequency 13 kHz, nominal force constant 0.2 N/m) were used for the measurements described in the research article cited above. *

Figure 3. from “Nanoscale Charge Accumulation and Its Effect on Carrier Dynamics in Tri-cation Perovskite Structures” by David Toth et al:
Initial dark and relaxed closed-loop KPFM analysis of CsFAMAPbBrI. (a) Topography channel plotting surface height. (b) KPFM image prior to light pulse plotting Vcpd. (c) KPFM image seconds after the light pulse plotting Vcpd. (d) 3D topography overlaid with the calculated ΔVcpd map. (e) Histograms of before and after Vcpd maps separated into grain and GB responses. The double arrows indicate the difference between the mean values of the distributions. NANOSENSORS™ Platinumum-Silicide PtSi-CONT AFM probes were used for the KPFM measurements.

Figure 3. from “Nanoscale Charge Accumulation and Its Effect on Carrier Dynamics in Tri-cation Perovskite Structures” by David Toth et al:
Initial dark and relaxed closed-loop KPFM analysis of CsFAMAPbBrI. (a) Topography channel plotting surface height. (b) KPFM image prior to light pulse plotting Vcpd. (c) KPFM image seconds after the light pulse plotting Vcpd. (d) 3D topography overlaid with the calculated ΔVcpd map. (e) Histograms of before and after Vcpd maps separated into grain and GB responses. The double arrows indicate the difference between the mean values of the distributions.

*David Toth, Bekele Hailegnaw, Filipe Richheimer, Fernando A. Castro, Ferry Kienberger, Markus C. Scharber, Sebastian Wood and Georg Gramse
Nanoscale Charge Accumulation and Its Effect on Carrier Dynamics in Tri-cation Perovskite Structures
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 42, 48057–48066
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c10641

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.0c10641

Open Access The article “Nanoscale Charge Accumulation and Its Effect on Carrier Dynamics in Tri-cation Perovskite Structures” by David Toth, Bekele Hailegnaw, Filipe Richheimer, Fernando A. Castro, Ferry Kienberger, Markus C. Scharber, Sebastian Wood and Georg Gramse is licensed under a ACS AuthorChoice  – Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Further permissions related to the material excerpted above should be directed to the ACS .

Multi-Channel Exploration of O Adatom on TiO2(110) Surface by Scanning Probe Microscopy

In the article “Multi-Channel Exploration of O Adatom on TiO2(110) Surface by Scanning Probe Microscopy” Huan Fei Wen, Yasuhiro Sugawara and Yan Jun describe how they studied the O2 dissociated state under the different O2 exposed temperatures with atomic resolution by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and imaged the O adatom by simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM)/scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).*

The effect of AFM operation mode on O adatom contrast was investigated, and the interaction of O adatom and the subsurface defect was observed by AFM/STM. Multi-channel exploration was performed to investigate the charge transfer between the adsorbed O and the TiO2(110) by obtaining the frequency shift, tunneling current and local contact potential difference at an atomic scale. The tunneling current image showed the difference of the tunneling possibility on the single O adatom and paired O adatoms, and the local contact potential difference distribution of the O-TiO2(110) surface institutively revealed the charge transfer from TiO2(110) surface to O adatom. The experimental results are expected to be helpful in investigating surface/interface properties by SPM. *

Iridium-coated ultrastiff AFM cantilever SD-T10L100 from the NANOSENSORS Special Developments List (typical Force constant 2 000 N/m) were used in the presented study.

The cantilever tip was first degassed at approximately 650 K for 30 min and then cleaned by Ar ion bombardment to remove the contaminants, prior to the measurements. Features of the surface structure were related to the charge states of the tip apex, and a stable tip was essential to accurately characterize the surface structure and properties in the experiment. The imaging mode became stable in AFM experiments when the metal-coated Si cantilever was employed in the experiments. *

Figure 5. from “Multiple images of TiO2(110) surface with atomic resolution and corresponding line profiles” by Huan Fei Wen et al. - Iridium coated NANOSENSORS SD-T10L100 AFM probes were used
(a) Frequency shift (∆f) image, (b) tunneling current (<It>) image and (c) local contact potential difference (VLCPD) image. (d,e) The line profiles along the blue line on the surface in (b,c). (f0 = 805 kHz, Q = 27623, ∆f = −260 Hz, VDC = 1.3 V, VAC = 1.5 V, A = 500 pm, size: 3.5 × 3.2 nm2). Multiple images of TiO2(110) surface with atomic resolution and corresponding line profiles. (a) Frequency shift (∆f) image, (b) tunneling current (<It>) image and (c) local contact potential difference (VLCPD) image. (d,e) The line profiles along the blue line on the surface in (b,c). (f0 = 805 kHz, Q = 27623, ∆f = −260 Hz, VDC = 1.3 V, VAC = 1.5 V, A = 500 pm, size: 3.5 × 3.2 nm2).

Figure 5. from “Multiple images of TiO2(110) surface with atomic resolution and corresponding line profiles” by Huan Fei Wen et al.
(a) Frequency shift (∆f) image, (b) tunneling current (<It>) image and (c) local contact potential difference (VLCPD) image. (d,e) The line profiles along the blue line on the surface in (b,c). (f0 = 805 kHz, Q = 27623, ∆f = −260 Hz, VDC = 1.3 V, VAC = 1.5 V, A = 500 pm, size: 3.5 × 3.2 nm2). Multiple images of TiO2(110) surface with atomic resolution and corresponding line profiles. (a) Frequency shift (∆f) image, (b) tunneling current (<It>) image and (c) local contact potential difference (VLCPD) image. (d,e) The line profiles along the blue line on the surface in (b,c). (f0 = 805 kHz, Q = 27623, ∆f = −260 Hz, VDC = 1.3 V, VAC = 1.5 V, A = 500 pm, size: 3.5 × 3.2 nm2).

*Huan Fei Wen, Yasuhiro Sugawara and Yan Jun
Multi-Channel Exploration of O Adatom on TiO2(110) Surface by Scanning Probe Microscopy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1506
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081506

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/8/1506/htm

More articles mentioning the use of NANOSENSORS ultrastiff AFM probes:

Yuuki Adachi, Huan Fei Wen, Quanzhen Zhang, Masato Miyazaki, Yasuhiro Sugawara and Yan Jun Li
Elucidating the charge state of an Au nanocluster on the oxidized/reduced rutile TiO2 (110) surface using non-contact atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy
Nanoscale Adv., 2020, 2, 2371-2375 (Paper)
DOI: 10.1039/C9NA00776H
https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2020/na/c9na00776h

Huan Fei Wen, Hongqian Sang Yasuhiro Sugawara, and Yan Jun Li
Dynamic behavior of OH and its atomic contrast with O adatom on the Ti site of TiO2(110) at 78 K by atomic force microscopy imaging
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 051602 (2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0016657

Yuuki Adachi, Yasuhiro Sugawara, and Yan Jun Li
Remotely Controlling the Charge State of Oxygen Adatoms on a Rutile TiO2(110) Surface Using Atomic Force Microscopy
J. Phys. Chem. C 2020, 124, 22, 12010–12015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c03117

Huan Fei Wen, Quanzhen Zhang, Yuuki Adachi, Masato Miyazaki, Yasuhiro Sugawara, Yan JunLi
Contrast inversion of O adatom on rutile TiO2(1 1 0)-(1 × 1) surface by atomic force microscopy imaging
Applied Surface Science Volume 505, 1 March 2020, 144623
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.144623

Open Access The article “Multi-Channel Exploration of O Adatom on TiO2(110) Surface by Scanning Probe Microscopy” by Huan Fei Wen, Yasuhiro Sugawara and Yan Jun is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Plant-Based Scaffolds Modify Cellular Response to Drug and Radiation Exposure Compared to Standard Cell Culture Models

Plant-based scaffolds present many advantages over a variety of biomaterials.*

Recent studies explored their potential to be repopulated with human cells and thus highlight a growing interest for their use in tissue engineering or for biomedical applications. However, it is still unclear if these in vitro plant-based scaffolds can modify cell phenotype or affect cellular response to external stimuli.

In the research article “Plant-Based Scaffolds Modify Cellular Response to Drug and Radiation Exposure Compared to Standard Cell Culture Models “ Jerome Lacombe, Ashlee F. Harris, Ryan Zenhausern, Sophia Karsunsky and Frederic Zenhausern report the characterization of the mechano-regulation of melanoma SK-MEL-28 and prostate PC3 cells seeded on decellularized spinach leaves scaffolds, compared to cells deposited on standard rigid cell culture substrate, as well as their response to drug and radiation treatment.*

In their study the authors show that plant decellularization provide soft scaffolds that match the stiffness range of most of the human tissue and modify cell behavior, including drug and radiation response, compared to standard cell culture models. Because of their distinguished features (natural vasculature, low immunogenicity, low cost, relative ease, etc.) and their wide variations in the shape and structures, these scaffolds offer a multi-controllable model with multiple biochemical and biophysical interactions. However, additional studies are required to determine if they could address important architectural and physical challenges of the in vivo tissue environment.

For force measurement, the Young’s Modulus (YM) of the leaf scaffolds were determined using force spectroscopy mode at liquid interface with NANOSENSORS uniqprobe qp-BioAC AFM probes for leaves measurement.*

NANOSENSORS uniqprobe qp-BioAC AFM probe top view (SEM image
NANOSENSORS uniqprobe qp-BioAC AFM probe top view (SEM image)

*Jerome Lacombe, Ashlee F. Harris, Ryan Zenhausern, Sophia Karsunsky and Frederic Zenhausern
Plant-Based Scaffolds Modify Cellular Response to Drug and Radiation Exposure Compared to Standard Cell Culture Models
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2020) 8:932.
DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00932

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00932/full#B27

Open Access: The article “Plant-Based Scaffolds Modify Cellular Response to Drug and Radiation Exposure Compared to Standard Cell Culture Models” by Jerome Lacombe, Ashlee F. Harris, Ryan Zenhausern, Sophia Karsunsky and Frederic Zenhausern is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.